Just before the turn of the year, on the 28th December, Spain passed significant labour reforms, described as the “beginning of the end of labour market anomalies involving temporary and precarious work” by its Employment Minister Yolanda Diaz, who brokered the deal.

As reported in the Morning Star, the package of measures overturns cuts to redundancy pay and controversial limits on the rights of trade unions made in 2012 by the then-ruling conservative Partido Popular. Crucially, it restores sectoral collective bargaining in law.

By introducing these reforms, the Spanish Government, led by Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez, hopes to end the increasingly temporary character of much employment in Spain (estimated at 26 per cent), combat abuse and to shift the imbalance of power between employers and workers, via the restoration of sectoral collective bargaining.